BPAG 171 Solved Assignment 2022 23

Assignment A 

Answer the following in about 500 words each. 

1. Define vulnerability and various factors of causing it. 

Answer :- Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A window of vulnerability (WOV) is a time frame within which defensive measures are diminished, compromised or lacking.

Vulnerability is the human dimension of disasters and is the result of the range of economic, social, cultural, institutional, political and psychological factors that shape people’s lives and the environment that they live in.


The following factors affect vulnerability


The widening gap between rich and poor, rural and urban incomes and hence the disparity in living standards can be witnessed in the flood plains of developing countries. landowners with marginal, degraded land, frequent flooding can decrease the returns from cultivating the land, thus reducing food security.

The rural poor who depend on incomes from farming or other agricultural activities, with no savings to help them them get back on their feet after a disturbance or pay for basic needs, are often obliged to migrate to the cities and are driven into debt.

Newcomers to an urban setting, not being able to afford safe locations in the city, are obliged to settle in makeshift dwellings in informal settlements on marginal lands near the river or other drainages that are extremely vulnerable to flooding.


The principal livelihoods of communities living in rural flood plains are mainly farming and fishing However, recurring floods threaten their stability of the their livelihoods owing to the loss of farm products or limited access to the markets for their products in the absence of adequate transport infrastructure.

The landless poor, working as hired labourers, particularly during long flood seasons, have trouble finding jobs to meet their basic needs.

• CULTURAL BELIEFS: Some cultural beliefs and fatalistic attitudes contribute to a community’s vulnerability. In some societies, natural disasters are considered to be acts of God and taken as if there is nothing human beings could do to prevent hazards from turning into disasters.

Lack of faith in the social system and lack of confidence in the ability to manage flood risks manifests itself in resistance to any such change.


Unequal distribution of resources and access to human rights can lead to conflicts and discontent, and in turn, the deterioration of social systems.

For example, individuals who are denied the right to freedom of association and access to information may be precluded from discussing issues related to flood preparedness and mitigation planning, receiving essential fundamental services and taking preventive measures to protect themselves from flood hazards.

In areas where flood diversion works are in place it may so happen that flood water are redirected into areas where poorer sections of the society with less political influence settle.


In societies where the decision-making power resides solely with the men of the family, ignoring the wisdom and experience of women and denying or limiting them the adequate access to knowledge and capacity development schemes,

which otherwise may be available to men, can deny the society the use of such human resources and contribute to women’s vulnerability in terms of personal security, health and well being, economic security and livelihoods.


In a society made up of various social groups, the needs of each group differ. Children, women, elderly and disabled people have unique group features that may add to their vulnerabilities in particular situations, such as during evacuation, sheltering, relief distribution and the rehabilitation process,

Underlying causes

• Poverty

• Limited access to 

– power structures

– resources

– information

• Ideologies

• Economic systems

• Age sex

• Illness & disabilities

2. Briefly discuss the relationship between disaster and development.

Answer :- Disasters and development are closely linked. Disasters can both destroy development initiatives and create development opportunities. Development schemes can both increase and decrease vulnerability. 

In the traditional approach to disasters, the attitude was that the disasters, especially natural ones, were an act of god and as such were beyond human control, accepting death and damage to property was part of the costs With such an attitude, most development plans were designed without consideration for the effect disasters would have on community plans and vice versa.

When a disaster did occur, the response was directed at meeting emergency needs and cleaning up In the current approach, it has been realized that much more can and need to be done to reduce the severity of hazards and disasters.

A growing body of knowledge on the relationships between disasters and development indicates four basic themes as follows: Disasters set back development programming, destroying years of development initiatives.

Rebuilding after a disaster provides significant opportunities to initiate development programmes. Development programmes can increase an area’s susceptibility to disasters.

Development programmes can be designed to decrease the susceptibility to disasters and their negative consequences Thus, the policymakers cannot ignore the relationship between the disaster and development.

Projects are thus being designed to include disaster recovery programmes and with long term development needs in mind. Disasters can significantly impede the effectiveness of development resource allocation. 

There are typically three types of disasters that can occur natural, biological, and man-made.

The first, natural, are the ones that most people think of when discussing disasters and they’re also some of the most common to occur. 2016 was a record year for natural disasters, causing upwards of $18 billion dollars in damage in the United States.

Many of these events are weather-based, which makes it difficult to prevent them. In most cases, there will be enough warning of an approaching natural disaster that communities will be able to take action.

The risk of a particular natural disaster occurring is contingent on weather conditions and location; some geographic areas are more prone than others for certain disasters.

There are thousands of things that can impact a community and prompt the community development process. One of the more significant and damaging are disasters. Every community has had to deal with the effects of a disaster at least once before during their existence.

For the very few who have not, the prospect of what such an event can do to any facet of the community is stressful to think about. But they happen, and they happen every year. It’s a serious thing that communities need to address.

With community development, disasters are usually viewed as a catalyst to include the process as the community rebuilds.

In some cases, disasters highlight the problems in the community more so than daily operations do: it puts things under pressure.

Disasters can also be an opportunity to test the improvements a community has made through community development, although it’s not a test that anyone is really welcoming towards. 

Including disasters as a factor in community development plans, as a result, can be extremely beneficial later on when they actually occur...

Assignment B

Answer the following in about 250 words each.

3. Write a note on the National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009 and National Disaster Management Plan, 2016. 

Answer :- National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009: NPDM has a vision to build a safe and disaster resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, multi disaster oriented and technology-driven strategy through a culture of prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response.

The Policy covers all aspects of disaster management covering institutional, legal and financial arrangements, disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, techno-legal regime; response, relief and rehabilitation; reconstruction and recovery, capacity development; knowledge management and research and development.

Under the provisions of the Act, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has been established under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister and National Executive Committee (NEC) of Secretaries has been created to assist the NDMA in the performance of its functions.

At the State level, a State Disaster Management Authority has been created under the Chairmanship of Chief Minster of the State, which has been assisted by a State Executive Committee.

At the District level, District Disaster Management Authorities have been created.

National Disaster Management Plan, 2016:

The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) was released in 2016, it is the first ever national plan prepared in the country for disaster management With National Disaster Management Plan 2016 India has aligned its National plan with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, to which India is a signatory.

The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) aims to make India disaster resilient and significantly reduce the loss of lives and assets.

The plan is based on the four priority themes of the “Sendai Framework,” namely, understanding disaster risk improving disaster risk governance investing in disaster reduction (through structural and non-structural measures)disaster preparedness, early warning and building back better in the aftermath of a disaster.


Make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction, and significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets – economic, physical, social, cultural, and environmental – by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.

Salient Features of the Plan

The plan covers all phases of disaster management: prevention, mitigation, response and recovery.

For each hazard, the approach used in this national plan incorporates the four priorities enunciated in the Sendai Framework into the planning framework for Disaster Risk Reduction under the five Thematic Areas for Actions:

Understanding Risk

The plan covers all phases of disaster management: prevention, mitigation, response and recovery,

For each hazard, the approach used in this national plan incorporates the four priorities enunciated in the Sendai Framework into the planning framework for Disaster Risk Reduction under the five Thematic Areas for Actions:

Understanding Risk 
Inter-Agency Coordination
Investing in DRR – Structural Measures
Investing in DRR — Non-Structural Measures
Capacity Development

The Response part of the Plan has identified eighteen broad activities which have been arranged into a matrix to be served as a ready reckoner

Early Warning, Maps, Satellite inputs, Information Dissemination
Evacuation of People and Animals
Search and Rescue of People and Animals
Medical Care
Drinking Water/ Dewatering Pumps/ Sanitation Facilities/ Public Health
Food & Essential Supplies
Housing and Temporary Shelters

4. List out the statutory provisions for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction. 

Answer :- After prolonged discussions and pursuant to the recommendations of the High Power Committee on Disaster Management, the parliament enacted the Disaster Management Act in 2005 to act as the foundational legislation in the country.

The Act not only stipulates the national agencies and functionaries along with their powers and functions, it also lays out a comprehensive framework within which the state, district and local level bodies are constituted and officials designated to discharge their assigned tasks and responsibilities in the management of disasters.

In the definitional part of the Act, two significant omissions are apparent given the need for providing the widest possible connotation to the terms used in the Act.

First, as the Second Administrative Reforms Commission points out, the definition of disaster adopted by the Act “does not cover a variety of other crisis situations that may or may not culminate in a disaster. 

“8 Second, the idea of disaster management has been conceptualised in a quite narrow sense in the Act as it does not include the component of mainstreaming development in the realm of disaster management.

As a matter of fact, most, if not all, of both natural and manmade disasters are a byproduct of the unsound developmental activities carried out by people.

Hence, in order to evolve a disaster resilient society in the long run, it is of utmost importance that disaster management is factored in a significant way in the developmental activities undertaken by the people.

Section 30 (2) (iv) provides that the District Authority may ensure that the guidelines for the prevention of disasters, mitigation of its effects, preparedness and response measures as laid down by the National Authority and the State Authority are followed by all departments of the Government at the district level and the local authorities in the district;

Section 30 (2) (xiii) provides that the District Authority may facilitate community training and awareness programmes for prevention of disaster or mitigation with the support of local authorities, governmental and non-governmental organisations;

Section 30 (xiv) provides that the District Authority may set up, maintain, review and upgrade the mechanism for early warnings and dissemination of proper information to public; 

5. Examine the case study of ‘The Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2004.’

Answer :- Case Study of the Indian Ocean Tsunami On December 26, 2004, the Indian Ocean earthquake, or the Sumatr-Andaman earthquake caused a tsunami that killed 230,000 people and was recorded as the deadliest tsunami in known history.

The earthquake was recorded as between 9.1 and 9. 3 on the Richter scale, the second largest earthquake ever recorded. It was also recorded as the longest one, triggering earthquakes as far away as Alaska.
Following the disaster, a worldwide effort raised billions of dollars in tsunami relief Consequences

The initial toll by the U. S. Geological Survey was 283,100 dead. However, actual figures counted 229,886. About one-third of the dead are children because they were least able to fight the waters.

Additionally, nearly 9,000 foreign tourists were dead or missing. The disaster affected Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, the Maldives, Somalia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Seychelles and others in South East Asian.

In some areas, drinking water supplies and farm fields are contaminated for the long term by the occan’s salt waters.

The United Nations stated that the relief effort will be the costliest in history and reconstruction may take up to ten years.

One of the biggest fears was the spread of diseases, which prompted non-governmental organizations and relief agencies to increase humanitarian aid. Furthermore, the economic impact is devastating on both the national and local levels.

Costal fishing communities are some of the poorest in the region, and fishing exports account for substantial earings of the countries. Nearly two-thirds of the fishing fleet and infrastructure were destroyed.

Assignment C 

Answer the following in about 100 words each.

6. What do you mean by epidemics? 

ANSWE :_ An Epidemic is generally defined as the process of rapidly spreading of infectious diseases within a short period of time into a large number of people in a given population and spread over to several countries or continent.

An Epidemic is derived from a Greek word which refers to upon or above people. Bubonic plague, Cholera, Influenza, SARSand Smallpox, are some of the common examples of Epidemics.

An epidemic may be restricted to one location, however, if it spreads to other countries or continents and affects a substantial number of people, it may be termed a pandemic The declaration of an epidemic usually requires a good understanding of a baseline rate of incidence: epidemics for certain diseases, such as influenza, are defined as reaching some defined increase in incidence above this baseline.

A few cases of a very rare disease may be classified as an epidemic, while many cases of a common disease (such as the common cold) would not.

An epidemic can cause enormous damage through financial and economic losses in addition to impaired health and loss of life. 

7. Discuss the key components of disaster preparedness framework. 

Answer :-  1. Clear communication

In the past, it’s often been a natural reaction for organizations to try to withhold information from the public. This is the wrong approach. Healthcare facilities can prove their worth to their communities by being open and honest.

In today’s world, information will leak out one way or another, so it’s essential the public gets the correct information from the healthcare experts instead of the wrong information from someone else.

Comprehensive training

Another important factor to consider when implementing a training plan is community involvement,

Knowledge of assets

Naturally, many people panic in the face of disaster. This places a heavy burden on government agencies and other local resources to provide relief for people dealing with a large-scale emergency 

Technology fail-safes and protocol

Every hospital has a medical records department. Those departments need a certain amount of physical space, access to files and software systems to get through every day.

Healthcare leadership involvement

Every hospital is focused on patient healing and safety. Occasionally, disaster preparedness is seen as a secondary pursuit, less impactful than the demands of day to day healthcare,

8. Comment on the concept of social and economic rehabilitation. 

Answer :- Social rehabilitation – it has its own significance it aims at providing social support to sufferers it could be through:

Establishing educational committee that provide regular counselling to sufferers;
finding persons who could conduct educational activities and provide books and writing material to children:
Running various programs related to physical and mental health;
Finding negative surroundings to sufferers like old age person and children,
Economic rehabilitation – it plays an important role to compensate the economic loss occurred due to the disaster it involves providing compensation to the victim based on: broad investigation of actual and future hazard and compulsion of troubled group; investigation of current livelihood planning and busines

9. Write a note on the types of traditional knowledge. 

Answer :- Technological knowledge – the indigenous people use their technical knowledge, gained over the years to address some of the concerns related to disaster risk reduction

Economic knowledge: Other type of indigenous knowledge is the economic knowledge used by the community at the time of crisis. 

Environmental knowledge:- It is something which is sensed by the community, even based on the mirror for minute inference which we get from the environment or surrounding.

On the basis of the colour of the water or clouds, people used to predict and wam the community members.

It is used to help the community members to take preparedness measures like storing food, firewood and fodder for cattle.

10. List out the principles of community based disaster management.

Answer :- Active participation – active participation of the community is very important for reducing disaster risk Use of local resources and capacities:-interventions begin from locally available and accessible resources, capacities and partnerships.

Own choices and decisions:-community should consider their choices and decisions while engaging in a disaster risk reduction,

Attention to vulnerable groups:-special focus should be given to vulnerable groups, so that their wellness and needs are taken care of in the pre, during and post-disaster phase.

Capacitating community: –DRR programs should be community-specific and focus on increasing the capacity of the local level people. 

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